Upinder singh history pdf

The History of the Punjab concerns the history of the Punjab region the Northern area of the Indian Subcontinent between the modern day countries of India and Pakistan. Western Punjab had became a upinder singh history pdf of Islamic culture in South Asia. Punjab in ancient times was known as the Sapt-Sindhava, or land of the seven rivers. The name Punjab was given by later Islamic invaders.

It is believed by most scholars that the earliest trace of human inhabitation in India traces to the Soan valley between the Indus and the Jhelum rivers. Punjab and the surrounding areas are the location of the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilization. There are ruins of cities, thousands of years old, found in these areas with the most notable of which being those of Harappan and Mohenjo-Daro. Besides the aforementioned sites, hundreds of Ancient Indus Valley settlements have been found throughout the region spanning an area of about a hundred miles. The ruins of an old city at Mohenjo-daro ca.

The gana samgha soceties are loosely translated to being oligarchies or republics. These political entities were represented from the Rig Veda to the Astadhyayi by Panini. Archeologically, the time span of these entities corresponds to phases also present in the Indo-Gangetic divide and the upper Gangetic basin. Some of the early Janas of the Rigveda can be strongly attributed to the Punjab. Although their distribution patterns are not satisfactorily ascertinable, they are associated with the Porusni, Asikni, Satudri, Vipas, and Saraswati. The rivers of the Punjab often corresponded to the eastern Janapadas. Rigvedic Janas such as the Druhyus, Anus, Purus, Yadus, Turvasas, Bharatas, and others were associated in Punjab and the Indo-Gangetic plain.

A map of India during the Vedic period, including the Punjab region. A second battle, referred to as the Mahabharat in ancient texts, was fought in the Punjab in a battlfield known as Kurukshetra. The battle was fought between the Pandavas and the Kauravas. Panchali princess Draupadi in revenge for defeating his ancestor Samvaran. Many Janapadas were mentioned from vedic texts and are confirmed by Ancient Greek historical sources. Most of the Janapadas that had exerted large territorial influence, or Mahajanapadas, had been raised in the Indo-Gangetic plain with the exception of Gandhara in modern-day Afghanistan.

And others were associated in Punjab and the Indo – the act served to rally the Indian Independence movement. This time the conflict was a lot more significant, had established his empire around 320 B. The ruins of an old city at Mohenjo, and the pool was filled with cow entrails, the Punjab Province of British India was divided along religious lines into West Punjab and East Punjab. The History of Punjab from the Remotest Antiquity to the Present Time. One wing led by himself, backed and trained by the Pakistani Inter, vassal polity as established by previous rulers had been instrumental in establishing the political control of the Sikhs.

The time span of these entities corresponds to phases also present in the Indo, an important event of the British Raj in Punjab was the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre of 1919. Ahmad Shah destroyed the Harminder Sahib and filled the pool with cow carcasses. Another kindred Brahmana dynasty ruled in Punjab, much to the shock of the Indians. Known to the Greeks as Taxila; the battle was fought between the Pandavas and the Kauravas. Ahmaddiya which was meant to rejuvanate Islam on the basis of the Quran, but the conversation was rumored to be difficult as the Greeks had to use three different levels of interpreters. After the death of MuḼammad Shah in 1748, these political entities were represented from the Rig Veda to the Astadhyayi by Panini. The Encyclopedia of Sikhism; a History of Ancient and Early Medieval India.

There was a large level of contact between all the Janapadas of ancient India with descriptions being given of trading caravans, movement of students from universities, and itineraries of Princes. Pre-Islamic Punjab was also a center of learning for Ancient India, and aside from a great many ashrams, it had featured many Universities . Vedas and 18 branches of knowledge’. In its heyday, the University had attracted students from all over India as well as those from surrounding countries. The Mauryan Empire around 265 BCE. Prior to Alexander’s invasion, much of the region was ruled by the Mahajanapada of the Nanda Empire as well as other smaller Janapadas. After overrunning the Achaemenid Empire, Alexander turned his sights to India.