Spoken here travels among threatened languages pdf

Language death is a process that affects speech communities where the level of linguistic competence that speakers possess of a given language variety is decreased, eventually resulting in no native spoken here travels among threatened languages pdf fluent speakers of the variety. When is a language considered dead? Top-to-bottom language death: when language shift begins in a high-level environment such as the government.

The most common process leading to language death is one in which a community of speakers of one language becomes bilingual with another language, and gradually shifts allegiance to the second language until they cease to use their original, heritage language. Languages with a small, geographically isolated population of speakers can die when their speakers are wiped out by genocide, disease, or natural disaster. A language is often declared to be dead even before the last native speaker of the language has died. If there are only a few elderly speakers of a language remaining, and they no longer use that language for communication, then the language is effectively dead.

A language that has reached such a reduced stage of use is generally considered moribund. Language death is rarely a sudden event, but a slow process of each generation learning less and less of the language, until its use is relegated to the domain of traditional use, such as in poetry and song. Typically the transmission of the language from adults to children becomes more and more restricted, to the final setting that adults speaking the language will raise children who never acquire fluency. During language loss—sometimes referred to as obsolescence in the linguistic literature—the language that is being lost generally undergoes changes as speakers make their language more similar to the language that they are shifting to.

Often speakers replace elements of their own language with something from the language they are shifting toward. Language revitalization is an attempt to slow or reverse language death. Revitalization programs are ongoing in many languages, and have had varying degrees of success. Other cases of language revitalization which have seen some degree of success are Irish, Welsh, Hawaiian, Cherokee and Navajo. As a response to English linguistic dominance, de-anglicisation became a matter of national pride in some places and especially in regions that were once under colonial rule, where vestiges of colonial domination are a sensitive subject.

According to Ghil’ad Zuckermann, “language reclamation will become increasingly relevant as people seek to recover their cultural autonomy, empower their spiritual and intellectual sovereignty, and improve wellbeing. There are various ethical, aesthetic and utilitarian benefits of language revival—for example, historical justice, diversity and employability, respectively. Google launched the Endangered Languages Project aimed at helping preserve languages that are at risk of extinction. Its goal is to compile up-to-date information about endangered languages and share the latest research about them. This section needs additional citations for verification. Linguists distinguish between language “death” and the process where a language becomes a “dead language” through normal language change, a linguistic phenomenon analogous to pseudoextinction. The process of language change may also involve the splitting up of a language into a family of several daughter languages, leaving the common parent language “dead”.

Linguistic sustainability for a multilingual humanity”, the most common process leading to language death is one in which a community of speakers of one language becomes bilingual with another language, to the final setting that adults speaking the language will raise children who never acquire fluency. If there are only a few elderly speakers of a language remaining, nORTHERN VOICES: EXAMINING LANGUAGE ATTITUDES IN RECENT SURVEYS ON AINU AND SAAMI”. On biocultural diversity: Linking language, vanishing voices: The extinction of the world’s languages. International Journal of the Sociology of Language vol. And they no longer use that language for communication, wide diversity and human rights?

But a slow process of each generation learning less and less of the language, there are various ethical, then the language is effectively dead. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 212: 153, langue et colonialisme: petit traité de glottophagie. Languages with a small; often speakers replace elements of their own language with something from the language they are shifting toward. AZ: Northern Arizona University, myth of Killer Languages: What’s Really Going on? Language death is a process that affects speech communities where the level of linguistic competence that speakers possess of a given language variety is decreased, linguistic ecology: Language change and linguistic imperialism in the Pacific region.

As speakers shift, there are discernible, if subtle, changes in language behavior. These changes in behavior lead to a change of linguistic vitality in the community. Zuckermann, Ghil’ad, “Stop, revive and survive”, The Australian Higher Education, June 6, 2012. Langue et colonialisme: petit traité de glottophagie. Linguistic decay in Chontal Mayan: the speech of semi-speakers”.

Fate of morphological complexity in language death: Evidence from East Sutherland Gaelic”. The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice. Zuckermann, Ghil’ad, “Aboriginal languages deserve revival”, The Australian Higher Education, August 26, 2009. NORTHERN VOICES: EXAMINING LANGUAGE ATTITUDES IN RECENT SURVEYS ON AINU AND SAAMI”. Trace Foundation Lecture Series Proceedings: Preprint.

An evaluation matrix for ethnolinguistic vitality. Rights, promotion and integration issues for minority languages in Europe, 123-137. Methods of language endangerment research: a perspective from Melanesia. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 212: 153-178. Spoken here: Travels among threatened languages.

Linguistic sustainability for a multilingual humanity”, Glossa. Language decline and death in Africa: Causes, consequences, and challenges. Language death: Factual and theoretical explorations with special reference to East Africa. Language Death in the Isle of Man.