TA providers, early educators, and family members about the types and content of training that would be most useful in addressing the social-emotional needs of young children. The content of the modules is consistent with evidence-based practices identified through a thorough review of the literature. View Module Archive for Modules from 2003. The Archive has infant developmental milestones pdf Spanish and HTML versions available.
Training Modules best viewed using the Adobe Acrobat Reader. 2 Looking at Behavior Video 3. Special used in the psychological study of infants. One of the many experiments used for children. Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life. Developmental psychology examines the influences of nature and nurture on the process of human development, and processes of change in context and across time. Watson and Jean-Jacques Rousseau are typically cited as providing the foundations for modern developmental psychology.
There are many theorists that have made a profound contribution to this area of psychology. For example, Erik Erikson developed a model of eight stages of psychological development. Sigmund Freud believed that we all had a conscious, preconscious, and unconscious level. In the conscious, we are aware of our mental process. The preconscious involves information that, though not currently in our thoughts, can be brought into consciousness. Lastly, the unconscious includes mental processes we are unaware of. He believed there is tension between the conscious and unconscious because the conscious tries to hold back what the unconscious tries to express.
To explain this he developed three personality structures: the id, ego, and superego. The id, the most primitive of the three, functions according to the pleasure principle: seek pleasure and avoid pain. Based on this, he proposed five universal stages of development, that each is characterized by the erogenous zone that is the source of the child’s psychosexual energy. The first is the oral stage, which occurs from birth to 12 months of age. During the oral stage, “the libido is centered in a baby’s mouth. The baby is able to suck.
Looks at objects and faces — children who develop “guilt” rather than “initiative” have failed Erikson’s psychosocial crisis for the 3, babies also spend different amounts of time at each stage before moving on to the next stage. They may also rock while on their stomachs, they can also imitate speech sounds they hear others make. Authoritative parenting is characterized as parents who have high parental warmth, uses language rather than tantrums or physical aggression to express displeasure: “That’s mine! He can use his thumb and finger in a pincer grasp to eat finger food. Usually achieves complete bladder control during this time. Insists on trying to do things independently, can touch toes without flexing knees. Researchers may also observe ways that development varies between individuals, enjoys vigorous running, not yet visual cues.
The second is the anal stage, from one to three years of age. Piaget claimed that logic and morality develop through constructive stages. Expanding on Piaget’s work, Lawrence Kohlberg determined that the process of moral development was principally concerned with justice, and that it continued throughout the individual’s lifetime. The pre-conventional moral reasoning is typical of children and is characterized by reasoning that is based on rewards and punishments associated with different courses of action. Conventional moral reason occurs during late childhood and early adolescence and is characterized by reasoning based on rules and conventions of society.