Computer architecture from microprocessors to supercomputers pdf

The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful computer architecture from microprocessors to supercomputers pdf-distributed computer systems in the world. The project was started in 1993 and publishes an updated list of the supercomputers twice a year.

Rapid growth of supercomputer performance, based on data from top500. The logarithmic y-axis shows performance in GFLOPS. In the early 1990s, a new definition of supercomputer was needed to produce meaningful statistics. After experimenting with metrics based on processor count in 1992, the idea arose at the University of Mannheim to use a detailed listing of installed systems as the basis.

1992, titled “Kahaner Report on Supercomputer in Japan” which had an immense amount of data. The information from those sources was used for the first two lists. Since June 1993, the TOP500 is produced bi-annually based on site and vendor submissions only. 1 ranked position has grown steadily in accordance with Moore’s law, doubling roughly every 14 months.

All the fastest supercomputers in the decade since the Earth Simulator supercomputer have used operating systems based on Linux. Since November 2015, no computer on the list runs Windows. MIPS as a small part of the coprocessors. In the TOP500 list table, the computers are ordered first by their Rmax value. For sites that have the same computer, the order is by memory size and then alphabetically. The highest score measured using the LINPACK benchmarks suite. This is the number that is used to rank the computers.

Measured in quadrillions of floating point operations per second, i. This is the theoretical peak performance of the system. Some supercomputers are unique, at least on its location, and are thus named by their owner. The computing platform as it is marketed. The instruction set architecture or processor microarchitecture. The manufacturer of the platform and hardware. The name of the facility operating the supercomputer.

The country in which the computer is located. The year of installation or last major update. The operating system that the computer uses. Numbers below represent the number of computers in the TOP500 that are in each of the listed countries.

Note, all operating systems of the TOP500 systems use Linux, but Linux above is generic Linux. In November 2014, it was announced that the United States was developing two new supercomputers to exceed China’s Tianhe-2 in its place as world’s fastest supercomputer. The two computers, Sierra and Summit, will each exceed Tianhe-2’s 55 peak petaflops. In June 2016, Japanese firm Fujitsu announced at the International Supercomputing Conference that its future exascale supercomputer will feature processors of its own design that implement the ARMv8 architecture. Inspur has been one of the largest HPC system manufacturer based out of Jinan, China. Some major systems are not listed on the list. The largest example is the NCSA’s Blue Waters which publicly announced the decision not to participate in the list because they do not feel it accurately indicates the ability for any system to be able to do useful work.