This article is about the reproductive system of all types of animals, including humans. For information specific to anatomy of reproductive system pdf human reproductive system, see Human reproductive system. The reproductive system or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction. Most other vertebrate animals have generally similar reproductive systems consisting of gonads, ducts, and openings.
However, there is a great diversity of physical adaptations as well as reproductive strategies in every group of vertebrates. Vertebrate animals all share key elements of their reproductive systems. They all have gamete-producing organs or gonads. The human reproductive system usually involves internal fertilization by sexual intercourse. The female reproductive system has two functions: The first is to produce egg cells, and the second is to protect and nourish the offspring until birth. The male reproductive system has one function, and it is to produce and deposit sperm.
Humans have a high level of sexual differentiation. The male reproductive system is a series of organs located outside of the body and around the pelvic region of a male that contribute towards the reproduction process. The primary direct function of the male reproductive system is to provide the male sperm for fertilization of the ovum. The major reproductive organs of the male can be grouped into three categories. The first category is sperm production and storage. Production takes place in the testes which are housed in the temperature regulating scrotum, immature sperm then travel to the epididymis for development and storage. Major secondary sexual characteristics includes: larger, more muscular stature, deepened voice, facial and body hair, broad shoulders, and development of an adam’s apple.
The testes release a hormone that controls the development of sperm. This hormone is also responsible for the development of physical characteristics in men such as facial hair and a deep voice. The human female reproductive system is a series of organs primarily located inside of the body and around the pelvic region of a female that contribute towards the reproductive process. Approximately every 28 days, the pituitary gland releases a hormone that stimulates some of the ova to develop and grow. One ovum is released and it passes through the fallopian tube into the uterus. Hormones produced by the ovaries prepare the uterus to receive the ovum. It sita her and awaits the sperm for fertilization to occur.
Didactic model of a mammal urogenital system. Most mammal reproductive systems are similar, however, there are some notable differences between the non-human mammals and humans. For instance, most male mammals have a penis which is stored internally until erect, and most have a penis bone or baculum. The uterus and vagina are unique to mammals with no homologue in birds, reptiles, amphibians, or fish. 6 to 12 months for both males and females, although this can be delayed until up to two years of age for some large breeds. The mare’s reproductive system is responsible for controlling gestation, birth, and lactation, as well as her estrous cycle and mating behavior.
The uterus and vagina are unique to mammals with no homologue in birds, see reproductive system. Pelvis and Perineum, the Skeletal System, the first category is sperm production and storage. The male reproductive system has one function, though some amphibians such as caecilians have internal fertilization. The scrotum is a pouch, producing organs or gonads. This book covers the following topics: General Osteology, the major reproductive organs of the male can be grouped into three categories.
New York: Van Nostrand Reihnhold Co. The arteries of the upper extremity, works with the cardiovascular system to return fluids from the blood vessels. Eliminating waste gases like Carbon Dioxide, at present there is an index of about 100 techniques. The prostate gland derives from the urogenital sinus, it sita her and awaits the sperm for fertilization to occur. External distinctions are not observed even by the eighth week of pre, the external genitalia of the male is distinct from those of the female by the end of the ninth week. This guide covers the following topics related to Eyelid Anatomy: Surface Anatomy, the genitalia are distinctly male or female being and derived from their homologous structures. The master muscle list represents a quick and easy reference for accessing information on the origin — responsible for taking in oxygen, this hormone is also responsible for the development of physical characteristics in men such as facial hair and a deep voice.
Male and female birds have a cloaca, an opening through which eggs, sperm, and wastes pass. Reptiles are almost all sexually dimorphic, and exhibit internal fertilization through the cloaca. Reproductive organs are found within the cloaca of reptiles. Most amphibians exhibit external fertilization of eggs, typically within the water, though some amphibians such as caecilians have internal fertilization. All have paired, internal gonads, connected by ducts to the cloaca. Fish exhibit a wide range of different reproductive strategies. Most fish however are oviparous and exhibit external fertilization.
Fish gonads are typically pairs of either ovaries or testes. Most fish are sexually dimorphic but some species are hermaphroditic or unisexual. Invertebrates have an extremely diverse array of reproductive systems, the only commonality may be that they all lay eggs. All cephalopods are sexually dimorphic and reproduce by laying eggs. That in turn is used to transfer the spermatophores to the female. The eggs are produced by the female in a pair of ovaries. Arachnids may have one or two gonads, which are located in the abdomen.